by Noreen Wiesen
Last week, Scientific Learning (developers of our Fast ForWord(R) programmes) was pleased to hostÂ The Neuroplasticity Revolution, a webinar with Dr. Norman Doidgeâpsychiatrist, psychotherapist, researcher, and author of theÂ New York TimesÂ bestsellerÂ The Brain That Changes Itself. The concept ofÂ brain plasticityâthe brainâs ability to grow and change in structure and function in response to experienceâis âthe most important change in our understanding of the brain in 400 years,â Doidge told an audience of more than 3800 registrants.
Doidge reviewed concepts of brain and mind in historyâdominated until very recently by the idea that the adult brain is hard-wired and therefore fixed in abilityâand explained why it took scientists such a long time to observe and accept the brainâs plasticity. He then told the story of a woman named Cheryl, who was fortunate to find herself in need of brain rehabilitationÂ afterÂ that old notion had been put to rest.
Cheryl had a balance problem. Her sense of balance had been so damaged by the antibiotic gentamicin that she couldnât stand up without feeling that she was falling. Physician-neuroscientist Paul Bach-y-Rita treated Cheryl with âsensory substitution,â a therapy he developed that provided corrective sensory feedback from a motion sensor through electrodes to Cherylâs tongue. The technique immediately helped Cheryl gain her bearings and she found that she could maintain her balance for a period of time after removing the training gear. This residual effect gradually lengthened, and over the course of a year, Cheryl regained the ability to stand normally without using the device at all.
Cheryl was able to regain normal function, said Doidge, despite having 97.5% damage to her vestibular apparatusâthe semicircular canals in the ear that connect to the brainstem and help to orient us in space. He noted that often, but not always, thereâs some kind of neural workaround even in severe cases. Cherylâs recovery not only seems miraculous, but also points to the fact that her brain changed itself to healâby recruiting dormant pathways or making new pathways for the corrected sensory information to travel.
Cherylâs, story, said Doidge, is just one example of how the brain learns. He went on to discuss âconventional learningâ and learning disorders in the classroom, walking his audience through Dr. Michael Merzenichâs research demonstrating the neural underpinnings of brain plasticity and learning.
Dr. Merzenich conducted a series of experiments in which he rearranged the wiring of the nerves connecting a monkeyâs fingers to its brain. He expected to see the brain maps for these fingers become distorted or jumbled, but instead found that they turned out fairly normal. He realized that the brain was able to adapt to the structural changes byÂ taking timing into account. The thumb usually initiates movement, for example, followed closely in time by the index finger. The middle and ring finger behave in a similar way. And Merzenich realized that the monkeyâs brain used the timing intervals to determine which fingers were adjacent to one another and map them accordingly. These experiments finally converted the brain plasticity skeptics.
A recording of the full webinar is now available, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org if you would like a copyÂ . Watch and learn:
- What are the 6 epochs of plasticity across the lifespan?
- Why does true immersion work so well for language learning?
- Why do 5-10% of preschool age children have trouble learning to read, write, and follow instructions?
- How does theÂ Fast ForWord programÂ help normalize the brains of dyslexic learners?
- And perhaps most intriguing of all, what does Freud have to do with any of this?